Can psychologists really fully understand human behavior?

As well as a medium paragraph response to the two questions at the bottom of the page. Q1- The present study examined the relationships of masculinity and femininity with concession in an experimental collaborative eyewitness testimony task, using the MORI technique. Participants formed same-sex or mixed-sex pairs and watched a videotaped event. Their eyewitness memories were assessed three times: immediately after watching, after discussing the event together, and individually one week later. The participants self-confidence in their recalled memories and percentages of concessions were also examined. The Masculinity-Humanity-Femininity Scale was administered to the participants at the end of the experiment. The results showed that masculinity negatively correlated with concession, and that both masculinity and femininity were associated with inaccuracy in collaborative memory recall. Operational Definition: Q2- The present study examined the extent to which the achievement strategies deployed by adolescents, and those used by their peers, would predict adolescents school adjustment, academic achievement, and problem behavior. The participants were 286 14- to 15-year-old comprehensive school students (121 boys and 165 girls) from a middle-sized town in central Sweden. The results showed that not only the maladaptive strategies used by adolescents but also those reported by their peers predicted adolescents norm-breaking behavior, low school adjustment, and low level of achievement; high levels of failure expectations and task avoidance among adolescents peers were positively associated with the adolescents own norm-breaking behavior and, indirectly via this, also with their maladjustment at school and their low grades. These associations were found after controlling for the impact of the adolescents own achievement strategies. Operational Definition: Q3- An ability to match faces with corresponding names was studied under various conditions involving encoding and retrieval. Twenty photographs of undergraduates were randomly paired with 20 common names. Experiment 1 presented photographs for tens each, followed by either presentation of the names alone with an instruction to write facial characteristics from memory or presentation of the photographs again with instructions to write from memory the names and anything unusual about the names themselves. Later retrieval, which was best for the former condition, was interpreted as showing that names could prime image representations of faces. Experiment 2 was a partial replication of Experiment 1, with retrieval measured over seven weeks. These results showed that memories for face-name matches lasted several weeks. Also, consistent with Experiment 1, the number of reported initial facial characteristics was highly predictive of matches between faces and names. These studies show the importance for later retrieval of forming and maintaining vivid images of faces even when the faces have no outstanding characteristics. Operational Definition: Q4- This study examined whether certain personality characteristics are associated with susceptibility to false memories. Participants first answered questions from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in order to measure various personality characteristics. They then watched a video excerpt, the simulated eyewitness event. They were next encouraged to lie about the videotaped event during an interview. A week later, some participants recognized confabulated events as being from the video. Two personality characteristics in particular-the introversionextroversion and thinkingfeeling dimensionswere associated with susceptibility to false memories. Operational Definition: Q5- In the present study, three alternative causal models concerning the relationships between implicit theories of intelligence, perceived academic competence, and school achievement were tested. The direction of changes in implicit theories and perceived competence during early adolescence was also examined. A total of 187 fifth and sixth graders were tested and then retested a year later, when they were sixth and seventh graders. Cross-lagged regression analyses indicated that school achievement determined the adoption of a particular implicit theory through the mediation of perceived competence. Implicit theories were found to change toward the adoption of more incremental beliefs, and perceived academic competence declined; however, high achievers, as compared with their low- and middle-level classmates, adopted more incremental beliefs and had significantly higher perceived competence. Operational Definition: Can psychologists really fully understand human behavior? Why or why not? Do any of the scientific foundations upon which psychology was based still make sense today? Can you think of any of the approaches that may still use some of the concepts of these foundations? Support your answer.

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