Week 7 Bibliography (Kim Woods Only) Due in 2 days

Attachments

Week 7 Bibliography (Due in 2 Days) Urgent/..Wk 7 DQ 2 (Required Assignment).docx

Plz read (I hv wrote after question)

Important Tips

and also sample paper attached.

Must be use attached Three

Article

I hv attached 3 Articles & include

each Article

have

three paragraph


summary, Analysis

and

application

to the study.

Selected topic: Sustainable supply chain management in Rosewood trade

(

Annotated Bibliography must be do on related this topic & Apply)

The three annotated bibliography on supply chain management, leader exchange theory etc (Check Intro last Page)


Must be 100% Original Work


MY Notes:


(Must see sample paper)

Sample Annotated Bibliography attached so must be follow & minimum 3 pages required & three (3) peer-reviewed sources (no older than 5 years).

(4 Pages required )Must be include Abstract like in sample

Course: DDBA – Doctoral Study Mentoring

Selected topic: Sustainable supply chain management in Rosewood trade

Discussion 2: Annotated Bibliography

In each week of this course, you will research and select

three (3)

peer-reviewed (no older than 5 years),, scholarly sources to develop an annotated bibliography that you can use in your Doctoral Study. You will need to take the three sources and synthesize the references into a single narrative annotated bibliography that compares/contrasts or supports your study. For example, you may develop three references that will fit into the Nature of the Study (or any other component) and then the synthesized version will help you in developing your Prospectus/Proposal. Please see this week’s Learning Resources for the Sample Annotated Bibliography Template, which you should use to complete your annotated bibliography.

By Day 3


Post

your synthesized annotated bibliography narrative that includes an explanation of how these references relate to one or more components of your Doctoral Study and incorporates specific references to the Doctoral Study Rubric.


Important tips: Include each Article

annotated bibliography have

three paragraph


summary, Analysis

and

applies

to the study

This

first paragraph

of the annotation

summarizes

the source. It outlines the main findings and primary methods of the study.

This

second paragraph

of the annotation

analyzes

the source. It explains the benefits of the source but also the limitations.

This

third paragraph

of the annotation

applies

the source. It explains how the source’s ideas, research, and information can be applied to other contexts.

In general, annotated bibliographies should avoid referring to the first or second person (

I, me, my, we, our, you,

and

us

). Instead, students should aim to be objective and remove themselves from annotations. However, there may be some exceptions to this guideline. Check with your instructor if you are unsure about whether he/she will allow you to use “I” in your annotated bibliography.


Must be use Below Three Article for


Annotated Bibliography & related intro & topic

Adjonou, K., Abotsi, K. E., Segla, K. N., Rabiou, H., Houetchegnon, T., Sourou, K. N. B., Johnson, B. N., Ouinsavi, C. A. I., Kokutse, A. D., Mahamane, A., & Kokou, K. (2020). Vulnerability of African Rosewood (Pterocarpus erinaceus, Fabaceae) natural stands to climate change and implications For SILVICULTURE in West Africa.

Heliyon

,

6

(6).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04031

Amadu, M., Ayamga, M., & Mabe, F. N. (2021). Assessing the value of forest resources to RURAL households: A case of forest-fringe communities in the northern region of Ghana.

Environmental Development

,

37

, 100577.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2020.100577

Dumenu, W. K. (2019). Assessing the impact of felling/export ban and Cites designation on exploitation of african Rosewood (PTEROCARPUS erinaceus).

Biological Conservation

,

236

, 124–133.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2019.05.044


Intro

Understanding a supply chain (SC) leader’s role from a collaborative capability management perspective offers insights into strategically managing exchange relationships during disruptions. This study illustrates the importance of leadership responsibility in managing overall resilience capabilities among SC network members. Using insights drawn from leadership theory, SC leader-member exchange (LMX) is operationalised to measure levels in exchange relationships. Furthermore, an integrative probabilistic-reliability management approach is applied to explore the impact of SCLMX on SC network resilience performance. The findings reveal (i) the significant role a buyer’s leadership can play in improving SC capabilities; (ii) the asymmetric roles of different capabilities in resilience improvement; and (iii) the need to further investigate the relationship between SC capabilities and resilience based on disruption phases. This study presents a novel and useful theoretical model for investigating the role and value of SC leadership in complex SC network collaboration.

Week 7 Bibliography (Due in 2 Days) Urgent/.Sample_Annotated_Bibliography.doc

PAGE

1

Sample Annotated Bibliography

Student Name Here

Walden University

Sample Annotated Bibliography

Autism
research continues to grapple with activities that best serve the purpose of fostering positive interpersonal relationships for children who struggle with autism. Children have benefited from therapy sessions that provide ongoing activities to aid autistic children’s ability to engage in healthy social interactions. However, less is known about how K–12 schools might implement programs for this group of individuals to provide additional opportunities for growth, or even if and how school programs would be of assistance in the end. There is a gap, then, in understanding the possibilities of implementing such programs in schools to foster the social and thus mental health of children with autism.


Annotated Bibliography


Kenny
, M. C., Dinehart, L. H., & Winick, C. B. (2016). Child-centered play therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder. In A. A. Drewes & C. E. Schaefer (Eds.),

Play therapy in middle childhood

(pp. 103–147)

.

Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

In this chapter, Kenny, Dinehart, and Winick provided a case study of the treatment of a 10-year-old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ADS). Kenny et al. described the rationale and theory behind the use of child-centered play therapy (CCPT) in the treatment of a child with ASD. Specifically, children with ADS often have sociobehavioral problems that can be improved when they have a safe therapy space for expressing themselves emotionally through play that assists in their interpersonal development. The authors outlined the progress made by the patient in addressing the social and communicative impairments associated with ASD. Additionally, the authors explained the role that parents have in implementing CCPT in the patient’s treatment. Their research on the success of CCPT used qualitative data collected by observing the patient in multiple therapy sessions
.

CCPT follows research carried out by other theorists who have identified the role of play in supporting cognition and interpersonal relationships. This case study is relevant to the current conversation surrounding the emerging trend toward CCPT treatment in adolescents with ASD as it illustrates how CCPT can be successfully implemented in a therapeutic setting to improve the patient’s communication and socialization skills. However, Kenny et al. acknowledged that CCPT has limitations—children with ADS, who are not highly functioning and or are more severely emotionally underdeveloped, are likely not suited for this type of therapy
.

Kenny et al.’s explanation of this treatments’s implementation is useful for professionals in the psychology field who work with adolescents with ASD. This piece is also useful to parents of adolescents with ASD, as it discusses the role that parents can play in successfully implementing the treatment. However, more information is needed to determine if this program would be suitable as part of a K–12 school program focused on the needs of children with ASD
.

Stagmitti, K. (2016). Play therapy for school-age children with high-functioning autism. In A.A. Drewes and C. E. Schaefer (Eds.),

Play therapy in middle cildhood

(pp. 237–255). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Stagmitti discussed how the Learn to Play program fosters the social and personal development of children who have high functioning autism. The program is designed as a series of play sessions carried out over time, each session aiming to help children with high functioning autism learn to engage in complex play activities with their therapist and on their own. The program is beneficial for children who are 1- to 8-years old if they are already communicating with others both nonverbally and verbally. Through this program, the therapist works with autistic children by initiating play activities, helping children direct their attention to the activity, eventually helping them begin to initiate play on their own by moving past the play narrative created by the therapist and adding new, logical steps in the play scenario themselves. The underlying rationale for the program is that there is a link between the ability of children with autism to create imaginary play scenarios that are increasingly more complex and the development of emotional well-being and social skills in these children. Study results from the program have shown that the program is successful: Children have developed personal and social skills of several increment levels in a short time. While Stagmitti provided evidence that the Learn to Play program was successful, she also acknowledged that more research was needed to fully understand the long-term benefits of the program.

Stagmitti offered an insightful overview of the program; however, her discussion was focused on children identified as having high-functioning autism, and, therefore, it is not clear if and how this program works for those not identified as high-functioning. Additionally, Stagmitti noted that the program is already initiated in some schools but did not provide discussion on whether there were differences or similarities in the success of this program in that setting.

Although Stagmitti’s overview of the Learn to Play program was helpful for understanding the possibility for this program to be a supplementary addition in the K–12 school system, more research is needed to understand exactly how the program might be implemented, the benefits of implementation, and the drawbacks. Without this additional information, it would be difficult for a researcher to use Stigmitti’s research as a basis for changes in other programs. However, it does provide useful context and ideas that researchers can use to develop additional research programs.

Wimpory, D. C., & Nash, S. (1999). Musical interaction therapy–Therapeutic play for children with autism.

Child Language and Teaching Therapy

,

15

(1), 17–28. doi:10.1037/14776-014

Wimpory and Nash provided a case study for implementing music interaction therapy as part of play therapy aimed at cultivating communication skills in infants with ASD. The researchers based their argument on films taken of play-based therapy sessions that introduced music interaction therapy. To assess the success of music play, Wimpory and Nash filmed the follow-up play-based interaction between the parent and the child. The follow-up interactions revealed that 20 months after the introduction of music play, the patient developed prolonged playful interaction with both the psychologist and the parent. The follow-up films also revealed that children initiated spontaneously pretend play during these later sessions. After the introduction of music, the patient began to develop appropriate language skills.

Since the publication date for this case study is 1999, the results are dated. Although this technique is useful, emerging research in the field has undoubtedly changed in the time since the article was published. Wimpory and Nash wrote this article for a specific audience, including psychologists and researchers working with infants diagnosed with ASD. This focus also means that other researchers beyond these fields may not find the researcher’s findings applicable.

This research is useful to those looking for background information on the implementation of music into play-based therapy in infants with ASD. Wimpory and Nash presented a basis for this technique and outlined its initial development. Thus, this case study can be useful in further trials when paired with more recent research.

�The format of an annotated bibliography can change depending on the assignment and instructor preference, but the typical format for an annotated bibliography in academic writing is a list of reference entries with each entry followed by an annotation (hence the name, “annotated bibliography”).

However, APA does not have specific rules or guidelines for annotated bibliographies, so be sure to ask your instructor for any course-specific requirements that may vary from the general format.

�An introduction is a helpful addition to your annotated bibliography to tell your reader (a) your topic and focus for your research and (b) the general context of your topic.

Although your assignment instructions may not explicitly ask for an introduction, your instructor might expect you to include one. If you are not sure, be sure to ask your instructor.

�Use a Level 1 heading titled “Annotated Bibliography” or any other wording your instructor has given you to indicate to your reader that the annotations will go next and separate this section from the introduction paragraph above.

�Format your reference entries per APA, as well as follow APA style when writing your paragraphs. However, as mentioned above, this is the extent of the formatting requirements APA has for annotated bibliographies.

The content of the paragraphs and how many paragraphs you include in each annotation follows academic writing conventions, your assignment guidelines, and your instructor preferences.

�This first paragraph of the annotation summarizes the source. It outlines the main findings and primary methods of the study.

�This second paragraph of the annotation analyzes the source. It explains the benefits of the source but also the limitations.

�This third paragraph of the annotation applies the source. It explains how the source’s ideas, research, and information can be applied to other contexts.

In general, annotated bibliographies should avoid referring to the first or second person (I, me, my, we, our, you, and us). Instead, students should aim to be objective and remove themselves from annotations. However, there may be some exceptions to this guideline. Check with your instructor if you are unsure about whether he/she will allow you to use “I” in your annotated bibliography.

Week 7 Bibliography (Due in 2 Days) Urgent/Assessing the value of forest resources to rural households_ A case of forest-fringe week 7 -2.html

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Outline


  1. Abstract

  2. Keywords

  3. 1. Introduction

  4. 2. Methodology

  5. 3. Results

  6. 4. Discussions

  7. 5. Conclusions and recommendations

  8. Declaration of competing interest

  9. References

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Figures (1)


  1. Fig. 1. Map of Mole National Park and Kenikeni Forest Reserve showing the study…

Tables (6)





  1. Table 1

  2. Table 2

  3. Table 3

  4. Table 4

  5. Table 5

  6. Table 6


Elsevier


Environmental Development


Volume 37

, March 2021, 100577

Environmental Development

Assessing the value of forest resources to rural households: A case of forest-fringe communities in the Northern Region of Ghana

Author links open overlay panel

MisbawuAmadu


MichaelAyamga


Franklin N.Mabe

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https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2020.100577


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Abstract

This study assessed the value of forest resources to rural households in forest-fringe communities in the Northern Region of Ghana. It also identified the factors that influence the amount of compensation (in terms of money) households were willing to accept to forego or limit the use of forest resources. We collected data from rural households in fringe communities to the Mole National Park and the Kenikeni Forest Reserve.

Contingent valuation

method was used to estimate the value of forest resources to rural households. Also, the Tobit model was used to investigate the determinants of the value of forest resources. The results show that households are willing to accept an average amount of GH¢3346.26 and GH¢1487.67 as annual compensation to forfeit the exploitation of market and non-market forest resources respectively. The Tobit model results show that education, age, income, farm size, remittances, membership to community-based organizations, access to extension services, distance from forest reserve and livestock wealth are factors influencing the average amount households are willing to accept as compensation. Based on the study outcomes, rural households should be educated on the importance of indirect forest resources. In line with the principle of fairness and equal rights and responsibility, a comprehensive ecological compensation scheme should be included in any ecological environment protection agenda of forest reserve areas. This protection agenda should not exclude households from exploiting non-market forest resources.

Keywords

Rural households
Valuation
Market resources
Non-market resources
Willingness to accept

1. Introduction

To ensure development meets the needs of both present and future generation, sustainability in terms of use and expansion of forests play a pivotal role. Forests, when properly managed will continue to provide habitats for both animal and plant species and sustain the livelihoods of about 80 percent of the world’s extreme poor living in the rural areas (

FAO, 2014

;

Newton et al., 2016

,

FAO et al., 2016

and

De la O Campos et al., 2018

). In developing countries, forests play critical roles in offsetting extreme poverty and hunger (

Hermans-Neumann et al., 2016

;

FAO, 2016

; and

Adusei and Dunyah, 2016

). For instance, households in forest fringe communities generate 20–30% of their cash income from hunting of wildlife (

Mavah et al., 2018

).

Hermans-Neumann et al. (2016)

indicated that forests contribute 25% to household income of rural comminuties in developing countries. The share of non-wood forest products to annual household income of Rural people South of Blue Nile State in Sudan is as high as 34% (

Abdelrahim, 2015

). This means that forests play an indispensable role in sutaining rural household income and livelihoods. For wood forest products,

Hussain et al. (2019)

estimated that 52% and 46% of rural forest income emanates from the sale of firewood and timber respectively. Estimates from UN (2014), and

Hermans-Neumann et al. (2016)

, showed that about 90% of rural communities are faced with rapid over-exploitation of forest resources. If this continues, extreme poverty in rural areas in sub-Saharan Africa will reach 90% by 2030 (

Castaneda et al., 2016

) and concentrated in marginal rural communities adjacent to forests (

De la O Campos et al., 2018

).

For households in forest-fringe communities,

Abdelrahim (2015)

estimated that 90% of them rely on forests for both income and sustenance, 77% engaged in the collection of wild food from forests as a major source of livelihood (

Hickey et al., 2016

). Communities adjacent to forests (protected and unprotected areas) pose a great threat to sustainability and effective conservation of forest resources. For instance,

Abukari and Mwalyosi (2018)

identified a declining ecosystem in Mole National Park in Ghana and Tarangire National Park in Tanzania due to poaching, illegal logging and grazing, and trespassing of households from communities adjacent to them. These activities impede the sustainability of their livelihoods (

De la O Campos et al., 2018

). The increasing demand of unregulated access to protected forest reserves by households in forest-fringe communities (

Abukari and Mwalyosi, 2018

) is partly due to lack of or limited knowledge of the value of forest resources, and the over-concentration of the tangible value of forests. For instance, aside from poverty and increasing population,

Dlamini (2012)

,

FAO (2014)

, and

Haroyu et al. (2016)

blamed poor knowledge and or limited research in valuing forest resources to the involvement of rural households in forest destructive activities. Thus, ascertaining the value of forests to rural households in forest-fringe communities is critical to effective policy formulation and implementation, and sustainable forest management and poverty reduction (

FAO et al., 2016

).

Rural household choice of use of sections of forest (for farming, housing gods, resting, hunting, shelter) reflects the different values they attach to forest resources. These values, according to

Dlamini (2012)

can be categorized into use values and non-use values; or into market values and non-market values. Use values include the direct and indirect gains an individual or a household realize by engaging in any forest activity or forest-related activity (

Dlamini, 2012

). These include but are not limited to hunting, fishing and logging.

The non-use values refer to less visible benefits (environmental services) which contribute to the general welfare of the society (

United Nations, 2014

). The non-use values include existence value, bequest value and option value among others. However, by not sustaining the non-use values of the forest, the appreciation of the use-values cannot be ensured. For purposes of economic valuation, use and non-use values of the forest are referred to as market and non-market values respectively. That is, total economic value of forest resources includes the sum of the market values and the non-market values. By market value, the concern is the directly observable price of forest products that can be traded in the market (

Amirnejad et al., 2013

) whilst non-market values involve the indirect and intangible benefits associated with forests goods and services. According to

Bullock (2017)

, non-market values barely reflect in making decisions to buy and to sell in the market.

The northern region consists of 26 districts, out of which 6 are described as Forest Districts (

Husseini et al., 2015

). The people in the forest districts depend on agriculture and the rich forest resources to support their livelihoods (

Danquah and Kuwornu, 2015

). Forests in Northern Ghana as reported by

Abukari and Mwalyosi (2018)

and

Essay (2018)

are threatened by unauthorized activities such as logging, mining and poaching, and longtime charcoal burning. These activities, coupled with the global call for the adoption of climate mitigation strategies call for the need to estimate the value of forest resources to rural households in forest-fringe communities in the northern region. According to

Kansanga and Luginaah (2019)

, if rural households get the knowledge on the value of forest, they will adopt forest management approaches that will promote sustainable coexistence between forests and forest adjacent communities.

To ensure success and sustainable

conservation of biodiversity

, not only in protected forest areas but also in unprotected areas, many researches including

Kansanga and Luginaah (2019)

,

Abukari and Mwalyosi (2018)

,

Nwakile et al. (2017)

and

Haroyu et al. (2016)

among others opined that ascertaining the worth of forests and forests to rural forest-fringe households is critical. However, others such as

Soliku and Schraml (2018)

,

Essay (2018)

,

APA and FPP (2014)

and

Aziz et al. (2013)

in their studies equally recommended the need to end the conflict between preservationists and forest indigenous households, win the support and cooperation by respecting and acknowledging the customary rights of local forest-fringe communities as critical to achieving successful biodiversity conservation. What is missing is that studies on market and non-market values of forests to forest-fringe households in Ghana is non-existing. This paper sought to fill this gap by estimating the value of forests to households in forest-fringe communities, ascertain proposed monetary amounts rural households are willing to accept as compensation to allow for the conservation of the forests.

The paper first placed the subject of study in the context of existing literature. It outlines the various research methodologies, tools and techniques that are adapted to effectively and efficiently collect data; organize and analyse data, leading to the realization of the research objectives. It finally discussed the findings and make recommendations based on the findings.

2. Methodology

2.1. Economic methods of valuing market and non-market forest resources

Economists have developed several methods of valuing forest resources. However, according to the

United Nations (2014)

, none of these methods has been universally accepted as the best method of economic valuation of forest resources. A good economic valuation method of forest resources must, as identified by the

United Nations (2014)

, accentuate on the willingness of users of these forest resources to pay for them coupled with other factors including the sustainable use of the forest resources. This should encompass the core values of rural households depending on the forest and qualities of forests important to these households (

Anderson et al., 2018

). In line with these, the study adopts the

contingent valuation

method (CVM) to ascertain the value of forest resources. It is a good method for finding the estimates of non-use values of environmental resources such as forests. CVM according to

Herriges et al. (2014)

is the best in terms of valuing environmental resources such as the forests. By CVM, rural households are asked their

willingness to pay

and or accept for the increase and or decrease in the quality and quantity of the forest resource (

Dlamini, 2012

).

CVM uses a holistic approach which can avoid separability and collinearity that are often associated with other valuation methods such as the Travel Cost Method and the Hedonic Price Method (

Willis and Garrod, 1993

). Unlike CVM, choice experiment uses different environmental attributes with varied experimental design and hence respondents are asked to make repeated choices between different bundles of environmental good. Therefore,

Hanley et al. (1998)

opined that the final result of a choice experiment valuation will be affected by the selection of attributes and how their levels are described. Considering that there are a large set of attributes which can be used to describe forest resources, the value stated will depend on the attribute chosen (

Hynes et al., 2011

). Sometimes, the chosen bundle of attributes for a choice experiment may not completely explain the general public’s perceptions (

Hynes et al., 2011

). It is important to note that sometimes, there is no statistically significant difference between CVM and choice experiment (

Jin et al., 2006

;

Hynes et al., 2011

). Also, when a fully specified utility function is used CVM and choice experiment produce equivalent estimates. The evidence of this is presented in the work of

Mogas et al. (2002)

who compared the estimated welfare measures of non-market values from alternative afforestation programs in the northeast of Spain using the two techniques and observed that both yielded equivalent estimates.

Also, in the words of

Diamond and Hausman (1994)

; “we believe that contingent valuation is a deeply flawed methodology for measuring nonuse values, one that does not estimate what its proponents claim to be estimating”. This admonishing is dependent on the authors’ belief and not empirical estimates. Empirically, this flaw can be minimized if not eliminated by a well explained hypothetical market for the non-use values to the respondents and proper questionnaire administration. As noted by

Hoyos and Mariel (2010)

, though CV has over the years been subjected to some interesting debates in 1990s, it is generally accepted at both an academic and a political level. It is important to note that some of the criticisms of CVM have shown to be erroneous while others, being correct, are not CVM specific but rather inherent problems of the neoclassical framework (

Hoyos and Mariel, 2010

).

Carson et al. (2001)

intimated that many of the alleged problems with CVM may be solved by careful design and administration of the questionnaire. The usefulness of CVM can be derived from work of

Hanemann (1994)

who stated that “when the public valuation is the object of measurement, a well-designed contingent valuation survey is one way of consulting the relevant experts, the public itself”.

The CVM is considered effective in valuing forest resources (

Lindhjem and Mitani, 2012

), as such, focus is given to finding how many households are willing to accept compensation and how much to forfeit sitting under a forest tree’s shade, cutting down trees for charcoal, timber, logs and fuelwood. How many households are willing to accept compensation and how much to forfeit hosting their gods in the forest, using a tree as gods, or generally praying in the forest among others. For the estimations, an individual household’s preference function is given as u(x,q), where x=x1,…,xm represents the vector of private forest goods or service, and q=q1,…,qm represent the vector of public or community forest goods or services. The ability to control quality defines what is private or public in this case. Whilst the quality of a private good can be controlled by an individual, that of that public cannot easily be controlled.

The x assume relative prices p=p1,…,pn that may not be market-determined. The individual household maximizes utility subject to income, y, thus the indirect utility function v(p,q,y) is given as:(1)v(p,q,y)=maxx{u(x,q)|p.x≤y}where p, q and y are the prices, public forest goods or services and income respectively at which the indirect utility function v(p,q,y) is maximized maxx{u(x,q)|p.x≤y}. u(x,q) is individual household’s preference function and x is the private forest goods assumed available at prices.

And the minimum expenditure function is given as:(2)m(p,q,u)=minx{p.u|u(x,q)≥u}where m(p,q,u) is the minimum expenditure function with which to achieve the utility level. minx{p.u|u(x,q)≥u}

Estimating the change in the expenditure function or the change in the indirect utility function reflects the idea of contingent valuation. Using the idea of willingness to accept (WTA) in this measure,

Haab and McConnell (2003)

defined WTA as the minimum amount of income an individual is willing to accept to allow for the deterioration or decline in quality and quantity of the present situation of the resources (e.g forest products) that he or she is enjoying.

WTA can implicitly be denoted as:(3)v(p,q,y+WTA)=v(p,q∗,y)or explicitly as:(4)WTA=m(p,q,u∗)−m(p,q∗,u∗)where: u∗=v(p,q∗,y), q∗= new level of forest (public) good, u∗= indirect utility function and y + WTA improved income level.

This study adopts WTA as a method of estimating the value of forest resources to rural households. This stem from the fact that households in forest-fringe communities already have access to a greater portion of the forests. The proposed hypothetical scenario seeks to improve conservation of forest by regulating households’ access to market and non-market forest resources. The scenario that was presented to the households is indicated below.

Reserved forest is an important asset to government and rural households in forest fringe communities. However, this asset is vulnerable to unregulated activities such as charcoal burning, illegal logging, poaching among others, and thus put the livelihood of the present and future generation of the rural people at risk. To avert the risks and ensure that the livelihoods of rural households are sustainably guaranteed, there is a biodiversity programme intended to manage the forest and protect it against unauthorized forest activities. To successfully implement the programme, “government” intends to manage the forest and strictly prevent rural households’ access to forest resources. With this, rural people will not be allowed to exploit any forest resources and services. This programme if implemented, will ultimately secure the forest for future generations of rural households and the nation as a whole. How much will you be willing to accept as compensation for your entire household to prevent you from accessing each of poles for housing, thatch, honey, habitat for gods etc. The Compensation payment is a mechanism to help the rural community to support the national agenda without incurring deterioration of their quality of life as it stands in economic/monetary terms.

Since the biodiversity programme is intended to prevent a household from accessing both tangible and intangible forest product and reduce their welfare,

Haab and McConnell (2003)

and

Hao et al. (2018)

suggests that WTA valuation method is most appropriate. It is also because households in the study areas are predominantly farmers and depend greatly on forest resources to sustain their livelihoods (

Danquah and Kuwornu, 2015

), hence WTA valuation method is most appropriate (

Spash, 2008

;

Radmehr et al., 2018

). The hypothetical scenario used to elicit WTA is in line with economic theory as households need to be compensated for the loss of benefits of the forest and the overall changes in their livelihood status (

Nguyen et al., 2015

).

2.2. Empirical estimation of values of forest resources

It is important to note that some people will not be willing to accept whilst others will be willing to accept compensation to prevent them from the use of forest resources. Those who are willing to accept are further asked to state the amount they are willing to accept for each of the forest resources. The amount households are willing to accept (AHWTA) is empirically estimated as:(5)AHWTAi=∑j=1j=JVFRjiwhere VFR denotes the value of forest resources, j denotes jth forest resources. The average household WTA is empirically given as:(6)AHWTA‾=∑i=1i=nAHWTAinwhere: AHWTA‾ is the average amount of money households are willing to accept for forest resources, and n is the number of households.

2.3. Theoretical and empirical frameworks of tobit model: determinants of WTA

We adopted a random utility maximization theory in this study. A household (consumer) will be willing to accept compensation to forfeit the exploitation of both market and non-market forest resources if he/she is sure that his utility will be at least maintained. The utility function as noted by

Taale and Kyeremeh (2016)

is known with certainty to the household. The household will be willing to accept a certain amount of compensation to forfeit the benefit from forest resources if the utility for forfeiting is at least equal to the satisfaction enjoyed under current condition. This is expressed as:(7)u1(b1,b2,M+awta)≥u0(b1,b2,M+awta)where awta, is the amount a household is willing to accept, and M, b1 and b2 denote the household income, benefits from forest and non-forest resources respectively. Also, u0 and u1 are the utilities of households at current and after compensation conditions.

The Tobit model which is an extension of the probit was used to identify factors influencing willingness to accept amount for households to forfeit enjoying forest resources either directly or indirectly. For this research, the amounts households are willing to accept do not take values below zero and hence has a positive density at zero. Due to the censoring of the data, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimation yields biased and inconsistent estimates. The censored data implies that some observations on WTA (those for which awta ≤10) are not observed. This means that households who were willing to accept an annual amount of Gh¢10.00 and below to forgo enjoying any of the forest resources or benefits were dropped. In similar studies,

Guan et al., 2016

,

Zhou and Li, 2015

,

Xiong and Kong (2017)

and

Taale and Kyeremeh (2016)

used Tobit model to identify the determinants of willingness to pay for ecological protection, watershed services, ecological environment improvement and reliable electricity services.

The limitation of the Tobit model is that the determinants of willingness to accept (a binary decision) and the willingness to accept amount cannot be examined simultaneously. Since at least each household was willing to accept compensation to forfeit enjoying forest resources, it is prudent and appropriate to use the Tobit model. Everybody was ready to accept compensation. Since all households were willing to accept compensation to forfeit enjoying forest resources, Tobit model was used. This is because we were effectively examining only the determinants of the amount households were willing to accept.

Following

Tobin (1958)

, Tobit model is expressed in index function form as:(8)yi∗=Xi′β+εiwhere:

yi∗ is the latent variable that is not observable; Xi′ is the vector of independent variables; β is the vector of unknown coefficient or parameters, and εi is the error term, assumed to be independently and normally distributed with zero mean.

The mathematical equations on the censored data distribution according to

Olowa and Olowa (2017)

, are given as:(9)yi=yi∗ifyi∗>yi(10)yi=0ifyi∗<y0where y0 is the limiting factor, y is a continue variable once data for the dependent variable is above y0, the limiting factor.

For this study, the dependent variable, awta is the amount households are willing to accept as compensation to forfeit dependence on forest resources.

To estimate the factors influencing household WTA compensation amount levels, the empirical Tobit model adopted is expressed as:(11)awtai=β0+β1remittancei+β2cboi+β3extsi+β4enrolli+β5lanculti+β6incomei+β7hhhedui+β8f_fdistani+β9lholdingsi+β10res_agei+β11genderi+β12h_mstatusi+β13hhsizei+β14livsetocki+β15cropi+μiβ1,β2,…,β15 are the parameters to be estimated and μi is the error term.


Table 1

shows the description and measurement of empirical variables used in the tobit model.

Table 1. Descriptions, Measurement and A priori Expectation of Explanatory Variables.

variables Descriptions Measurement A priori expectation
awta Amount of money households are willing to accept as compensation Ghana cedis (Gh¢)
remittance remittance receiving status 1 = receiving +
0 = not receiving
cbo Membership of CBO 1 = member _
0 = non-member
exts Access to extension service 1 = have access _
0 = have no access
landcult Land under cultivation hectares +
income Annual household income Ghana cedis (Gh¢) +
hhhedu Educational level of household head 0 = illiterate _
1 = primary
2 = JHS/Middle
3 = SHS
4 = College/University
f_fdistan farm distance from forest reserve kilometers +
lholding total land holdings of the household hectares +
res_age age of household head Years
gender gender of household head 1 = males +
0 = female
h_mstatus marital status of household head 1 = married +
0 = otherwise
hhsiz Household size number of persons ±
livestock Livestock wealth of the household Ghana cedis (Gh¢) _
crop Crop wealth of the household Ghana cedis (Gh¢)

2.4. Study area

The study was undertaken in the Northern Region of Ghana. The region is the largest, representing 40% of the total land area of the country. The region was divided into two livelihood zones, namely the forest zone and the non-forest zone. The forest livelihood zone represents rural communities around the largest national park in Ghana called Mole National Park (see

Fig. 1

) and the Kenikeni Forest Reserve (second largest forest reserve in the Northern Region). Both are located in the West Gonja District. The District, according to

GSS (2014)

, has a total population of 41,180 with 48.5% living in rural areas, and 53.0% of the economically active population engaged in agriculture. The District, apart from the Mole National Park and the Kenikeni Forest Reserve also has very vast reserve forest rich in rosewood and other quality timber products (

Tom-Dery et al., 2013

). As shown on the map in

Fig. 1

, the four forest-fringe communities where data was collected are Kananto, Larabanga, Mognori and Murugu.

Fig. 1


  1. Download : Download high-res image (854KB)

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Fig. 1. Map of Mole National Park and Kenikeni Forest Reserve showing the study communities.

2.5. Data sources and description

In the West Gonja District, the communities were stratified into forest fringe communities and non-forest fringe communities. Four forest fringe communities in the West Gonja District were selected out of 14 communities using a simple random sampling technique. Simple random sampling technique was used because of the homogeneity of the features of the fringe communities. Note that, the fringe communities are communities that are proximal to Kenikeni Forest Reserves and the Mole National Park. Apart from one community, 30 households were selected using a systematic sampling technique from each of the three forest fringe communities thus Kananto, Mognori and Larabanga. In the remaining one fringe community, 60 households were selected from Murugu using the systematic sampling technique. This was because the community was very large and has more than twice the population of others. Systematic sampling was done using house numbers. In all, a sample size of 150 households was used for the study.

The study collected primary and cross-sectional data using interviews and semi-structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed and divided into two parts. The first part was on the valuation of forest resources. This involves market and non-market forest resources. The questionnaires sought from the respondent how much they earn annually from market forest resources and how much they are willing to accept as compensation to forfeit their right to harvest forest resources (see appendix 1). It also included questions on how much they are willing to accept as compensation to forgo enjoying non-market benefits of the forest (fresh air, shade, aesthetic beauty etc.). In measuring the option value, respondents were asked to indicate how much compensation they were willing to accept for the entire households be prevented from experiencing or visiting Mole National Park and Kenikeni Forest Reserve in the future. Additionally, bequest value was obtained by finding out how much respondents were willing to accept as compensation to lose the forest resources for their future generations (children, grandchildren etc.). WTA which is an amount of money that is expected to be given to a household to prevent the continued existence of the forest resources whether or not the household has any interest in using the forest resources in the future was also ascertain as the existence value. Thus WTA compensation for forgoing the satisfaction from the preservation of the natural resource as habitats for biodiversity (fish, plants, animals etc).

The second part was designed to collect data on the general socio-demographic and economic characteristics of the respondents/households. Before the interviews were conducted, the respondents were assured that the study was purely academic and hence their confidentiality will be held. Also, their consents were sought. Additionally, the respondents were informed that the interview was voluntary and so they may decline to answer any question they are not comfortable with. The interviews were not recorded.

3. Results

3.1. Summary statistics of variables


Table 2

shows the summary statistics of the categorical variables. From the table, out of 150 respondents, 85% of the household heads are males whilst 14.8% are females. In terms of the educational level of household heads, whilst 34% had no formal education, 66% were educated. Also, the respondents who have contacts with agricultural extension agents are 10.0%. This is typical of Ghana since there are woefully inadequate agricultural extension agents. Out of 150 respondents, 40.7% and 90.7 receives remittances and are married respectively.

Table 2. Summary statistics of categorical variables.

Variables Frequency Percentage
Sex:
Male 128 85.33
Female 22 14.67
Extension contacts:
Yes 15 10.00
No 135 90.00
Receive remittances:
Yes 61 40.67
No 89 59.33
Marital status:
Not married 14 9.33
Married 136 90.67
CBO membership:
Member 102 68.00
Not member 48 32.00
Education:
Educated 51 34.00
Not educated 99 66.00

Source: Computed from field data, 2018

Also,

Table 3

shows that a household received an average amount of GH¢352 annually as remittance while the average annual income is GH¢15,269. A household head is averagely 35 years old with an average household size of 10. The economically active males and females in a household are 4 and 3 respectively. In terms of wealth, a household had an average amount of GH¢6186 and GH¢5142 worth of livestock and farm crops respectively. Finally,

Table 3

revealed that the mean total landholdings and farm size of households in the study area to be 6ha and 3ha respectively.

Table 3. Summary statistics of continuous variables of the models.

Variable Description Mean Std. Dev.
reamt Remittance received 352.05 476.1784
income Annual income 15269.07 14551.2700
livestock Livestock wealth 6186.19 9537.5240
crop Crop wealth 5142.11 2331.1850
hhsize Household size 10.21 3.5977
res_age Age of respondent 35.09 10.9773
lcultivat Farm size 3.08 1.0782
lholdings Total land holdings 5.96 2.5619
f_fdistan Farm to forest distance 1.68 0.9075
males14 Economically active males 3.86 1.7912
females14 Economically active females 2.94 1.5621

Gh₵ 4.77 = US$1.00.

Source: Computed from field data, 2018

3.2. WTA: market and non-market values of forest resources

This involved the summations of the amounts; in Ghana cedis,

1

that rural households would be willing to accept as compensation to forfeit the exploitation of market (tangible) and non-market (intangible) forest resources (see

Table 4

and

Table 5

). The annual total WTA amount for market forest resources for 150 respondents is one hundred and fourteen thousand and forty-one Ghana cedis (Gh¢114,041.00) representing 77.06% of the total WTA amount. On the other hand, the annual total WTA amount for non-market forest resources is thirty-three thousand nine hundred and fifty Ghana cedis (GH¢33,950.00). To forgo the exploitation of trees for timber, they demanded annual average compensation amount of GH¢539.77 and a maximum annual compensation of GH¢2000.00 as revealed by the study in

Table 4

.

Table 4. WTA compensation levels of Market Forest Resources.

Forest Market Resources Frequency (n = 150) Percentage out of 150 respondents Total Annual Values of Forest Resources (Gh¢) Average Household Annual Values of Forest Resources (Gh¢)
Honey (gallons) 38 25.33 7650 765038=201.52
Fuelwood (bundle) 54 36.00 8650 160.19
Medicinal herbs 9 6.00 2000 222.22
Mushrooms 74 49.33 8950 120.95
Charcoal (bags) 46 30.67 9660 210.00
Bushmeat/game 30 20.00 9850 328.33
Wild fruits/foods 43 28.67 8930 207.67
Roofing woods 22 14.67 5250 238.64
Logs and poles 39 26.00 10,450 267.95
Timber 44 29.33 23,750 539.77
Chewing sticks 44 29.33 5800 131.82
Thatch grass 7 4.67 2750 392.86
Water 13 8.67 3501 269.31
Rattan/canes 124 82.67 6850 55.24
Total GH¢114,041.00 GH¢3346.26

Gh₵ 4.77 = US$1.00.

Frequency implies number of responding households out of a total of a sample size of 150 households.

Source: Computed from field data, 2018

Table 5. WTA Compensation levels of Non-market Forest Resources.

Forest Non-market Resources Frequency (n = 150) Percentage out of 150 respondents Total Annual Values of Forest Resources (Gh¢) Average Household Annual Values of Forest Resources (Gh¢)
Fresh air 14 9.33 3200 320014=228.57
Shade 33 22.00 6200 187.88
Housing spirits/gods 37 24.67 5750 155.41
Aesthetic beauty 36 24.00 6450 179.17
Praying grounds 33 22.00 5550 168.18
Bequeathing benefits 26 17.33 4900 188.46
Existence satisfaction 5 3.33 1100 220.00
Option value 5 3.33 800 160.00
Total GH¢33,950.00 GH¢1487.67

Gh₵ 4.77 = US$1.00.

Frequency implies the number of responding households out of a total of a sample size of 150 households.

Source: Computed from field data, 2018

3.2.1. WTA: values of market forest resources

The results in

Table 4

revealed that households are willing to accept an average amount of GH¢3346.00 as compensation to forfeit the exploitation of market forest resources. Of this, 83% are willing to accept an average amount of GH¢55.00 as compensation to forfeit the harvesting of rattan/canes. This means that households attached relatively low value to rattan.

From

Table 4

, whilst 49% of the households are willing to accept an average amount of GH¢121.00 as compensation to forgo the exploitation of mushrooms, 36% are willing to accept compensation of GH¢160.00 for fuelwood. Again, as high as 85% and 95% of households are not willing to accept compensation to forfeit the exploitation of roofing woods and thatch grass respectively. Meanwhile, 94% are not willing to forfeit the exploitation of medicinal herbs. Timber received the highest average WTA amount (Gh¢540) with 29% of households willing to accept compensation to forfeit its exploitation.

3.2.2. WTA: values of non-market forest resources


Table 5

shows that approximately 40% households are willing to accept an average amount of GH¢1488.00 as compensation to forgo the exploitation of non-market forest resources. For fresh air from the tree(s), 0.09% of households are willing to accept an average amount of GH¢229.00 to forfeit fresh air exploitation.

In

Table 5

, option value (sustainable ecosystem services) and existence satisfaction of the forest recorded the lowest each (0.03%) positive WTA and these households are willing to accept average amounts of GH¢160.00 and GH¢220.00 respectively to forfeit exploring them. On the other hand, 25% (highest) of households are willing to accept GH¢155.00 averagely as annual compensation to waive the use of the forest to house family and community gods and to host the spirits of their forefathers.

3.2.3. Determinants of households WTA amount levels

The Tobit model is adopted to investigate socioeconomic factors influencing the value households attach to forest resources. Thus, the minimum amount households are willing to accept as compensation (awta) is regressed against the socio-economic, demographic and institutional characteristics of households. From

Table 6

, the Chi-square value of 102.99 is statistically significant at 1%. This implies that all the explanatory variables jointly explained the variations in the WTA. The Tobit results in

Table 6

revealed that remittances, annual household income level, the distance of the household farm from the forest reserve, farm size of land under cultivation, access to agricultural extension services, membership to Community Based Organization (CBO), the livestock wealth of the household and age of the household head have statistical significant influence on the value (WTA compensation amount). At 99% confidence interval, households receiving remittances will accept GH¢489 more as compensation than their counterparts. At 95% significant level, households who are members of CBOs are willing to accept a compensation amount of GH¢389.00 less than their counterparts who are not members of CBOs. It should be noted that, households with access to extension services at 10% error level, will increase their expected compensation amount by GH¢417.00 than those without access to extension services. Again, the expected compensation amount increases by GH¢95 for an acre increase in farm size. This might be as a result of the destructive activities of wild animals to their farmlands and crops.

Table 6

revealed a negative relationship between households annual income and the amount households are willing to accept as compensation. Thus, a cedi increase in income reduces the amount a household will accept as compensation by GH¢0.02. This was not expected, because high-income households can engage in high-return forest activities such as logging (harvesting rosewood and other timber products), beekeeping and charcoal burning, and hence may demand high amounts as compensation to forgo the exploitation of such forest resources. The proximity of the household to the forest reserves improves the household’s WTA compensation amount by approximately GH¢343.00 at 99% confidence interval, holding all other explanatory variables in the model constant. This may be because; households with farms close to the forest reserves have easy access to high-income returns forest resources (beekeeping and poaching) than those with farms far from the forest reserves. As such, they will demand relatively higher compensation to forfeit those advantages.

Table 6. Tobit Model Explaining Determinants of WTA Amount levels.

Dependent variable (awta) Description Coefficient Standard Error t-statistic
remittance Remittance status 488.7244*** 159.23 3.07
Cbo CBO membership status −389.0280** 177.03 −2.20
Exts Access to extension service 417.2596* 251.46 1.66
enrol Children enrolled in school 38.1913 51.98 0.73
landcult Acre size of land under cultivation 94.5948** 41.94 2.26
income Annual household non-forest income −0.0206*** 0.01 −3.19
hhhedu Educational status of household head 84.6107** 41.32 2.05
f_fdistan Distance from forest reserve 343.1148*** 90.34 3.80
lholdings Acre size of total land holdings 12.7877 14.95 0.86
res_age Age of household head 16.6809*** 6.26 2.66
gender Sex of household head 1144.8190 841.19 1.36
h_mstatus Marital status of household head 172.6377 136.28 1.27
hhsize Household size −26.8409 25.81 −1.04
livestock Livestock wealth of household −0.0225** 0.01 −2.18
crop Crop wealth of household −0.0681 0.05 −1.47
_cons Intercept −2185.9700* 1149.09 −1.90
Number of observations
LR Chi square
Pseudo-R2
150
102.99***
0.0466
22 left-censored observations at awta ≤ 10
128 uncensored observations
0 right-censored observations

***, **, * represent 1%, 5%, and 10% significance level, respectively.

Gh₵ 4.77 = US$1.00.

Source: Analysis from field data, 2018

The Tobit results in

Table 6

also indicate that households headed by aged persons increase their WTA amount by approximately GH¢17.00 than those headed by young persons, all other variables held constant. This might be because households headed by the aged generally have the majority of their members within the economically active age. Whilst the aged members are engaged in poaching and other activities requiring skills and experience, the young members may be engaged in forest activities such as illegal logging, requiring physical strength and long working hours. As such, households headed by the aged predominantly depend more on high return forest activities. Thus households headed by the aged will demand relatively higher compensation amounts than those headed by young persons. Also, the coefficient of livestock wealth is negative, indicating that households with increased livestock wealth reduce at 5% error level, their expected WTA compensation amounts to approximately GH¢0.02. Households may tend to depend less on forest resources as their livestock population and value increase, hence may demand relatively lower compensation levels.

4. Discussions

From the descriptive statistics, free compulsory universal basic education (Ghana) (FCUBE) needs to be strongly enforced in rural fringe communities around the study areas, given that there are basic schools located within these communities. The implication is that illiteracy in the study area is far above the national and regional rural rates of 48% and 47% respectively (

GSS, 2013

). When children go to school, they will be able to read and write and get to know the importance of conserving forest and biodiversity.

Inglehart et al. (2014)

found a direct relationship between the educational status of local people and their preparedness to support and engage in biodiversity conservation.

As shown in

Table 5

, the relatively low total annual value of non-market forest resources is partly due to the high percentages of respondents not willing to accept compensation to forgo exploitation of many of the indirect forest resources. Respondents consider the acceptance of compensation for some of such resources as tantamount to selling their cultural and ancestral world. They believe it may incur the wrath of their ancestors. In line with the findings of

Kuuder et al. (2013)

, the study identified households depending on non-market forest resources already observing environmental conservation practices and rules similar to those contained in the proposed conservation scheme. Also sampled households with positive WTA for direct forest resources, however, demanded a relatively high compensation level or amount. Only a small number (see details in

Table 4

) of sampled households are engaged in logging and harvesting of rosewood and other timber species, and thus earn high incomes. The implication is that such households may be worst hurt by the implementation of the proposed conservation scheme as it tends to make criminal their activities and denies them absolute access of such market forest resources. To substitute for the loss of such high-income resources, this category of households may have to demand high compensation amounts capable of undertaking relatively higher alternative livelihood activities such as fish, bee and

poultry farming

.


Table 4

revealed that only 15% of sampled households are willing to accept compensation to forfeit the exploitation of roofing woods, 5% to forfeit thatch grass and 6% to forfeit medicinal herbs. The implication is that thatch grass, roofing woods and medicinal herbs are very dear to households in forest-fringe communities. Similar to the findings of

Carignano et al. (2016)

where forest-dependent rural households in the post-frontier region in Amazonia attributed higher values to material forest resources such as bushmeat, thatch and medicinal herbs. Though current harvesting of rosewood is unregulated, the relatively high WTA average compensation amount (GH¢540) manifests its high contribution to the livelihood income of rural households. However, about 71% of households are unwilling to accept compensation to forfeit this high returns activity. The reason is that majority of rural households do not engage in the exploitation of timber including rosewood. This may be because they understand the long-run negative impact of illegal logging of timber especially rosewood on their livelihoods, or partly because they are unable to meet the financial capital requirements such as initial capital for purchasing chain saw, tractor or crane for lifting the logs. This confirmed the admonishing

Dumenu and Bandoh (2016)

that in Ghana, the African rosewood is mildly exploited for fuelwood and charcoal production, medicinal purposes and fodder for animals during dry season by the local people.

Majority of households (see details in

Table 5

) are unwilling to forfeit the option value and existence satisfaction of the forest, revealing the importance they attach to such resources. One of the respondents indicated that “the need to hold on to the forest and not to accept compensation is to secure the honour to join their ancestors resting in the forest in the future”. According to him, “it is equally because of the need to remain in touch with their totems (plants and animals) and hence accepting compensation, to them, is tantamount to selling and denouncing their ancestors”. Another respondent agrees by saying that “accepting compensation to prevent the future enjoyment of the forest also means sacrificing their afterwards and the afterwards of their future generation for cash”. The high (75% average) of ‘no’ responses to WTA compensation for non-market forest resources as indicated in

Table 5

, manifest the high value that rural households attached to the non-material resources that the forest provides. It is also because non-market forest resources form a pivotal part of the spiritual and cultural life of rural people and thus making it difficult for them to put a value on this category of forest resources. The socio-cultural values that local people attach to non-market forest resources, according to

Mantymaa et al. (2009)

,

Debal (2014)

and

Forest Peoples Programme (2014)

, promote local environmental conservation initiatives and strengthen local commitment to fight against forest destructive activities.

The Tobit results (see

Table 6

) revealed that households who receive remittances are willing to accept relatively higher amounts as compensation than their counterparts. This may be partly because they engage in high returns forest activities or they benefit directly from the forests. Therefore, they require higher compensation to forfeit the satisfaction they derive from the forest as this is similar to observations by

Forest Peoples Programme (2014)

and

Hao et al. (2018)

. Comparatively, households with membership to CBOs are willing to accept lesser amounts as compensation than their counterparts. This is similar to the findings of

Mantymaa et al. (2009)

in their study “Participation and compensation claims in voluntary forest conservation: A case of privately owned forests in Finland.” This may be because the activities of CBOs in forest-fringe communities largely encourages ecological conservation and thus the proposed biodiversity conservation may impact positively to their socioeconomic wellbeing. Educational and vocational training supports CBO members receive from NGOs and the management of the two forest reserves including Zaina Lodge may also account for this outcome. The protection and conservation of endangered species (plants and animals) positively impact their livelihood activities. Farming (animal and crop) is a very risky venture in rural forest-fringe communities; because wild animals mostly feed on available domestic animals and farm crops. As such, rural farm households with access to extension services, high livestock wealth, and with large farm sizes and farms nearer to the forest are willing to accept higher amounts as compensation.

5. Conclusions and recommendations

The study results showed that households attach more value to direct/market forest resources than indirect/non-market forest resources. There is a strong bond between the socioeconomic life of rural households and the forest. Based on the study outcomes, rural households should be educated on the importance of indirect forest resources. Education shapes and sustain conservation policies by enhancing effective grass-root participation and support for decisions that promote biodiversity conservation. In line with the principle of fairness and equal rights and responsibility, a comprehensive ecological compensation scheme should be included in an ecological environment protection agenda in forest reserve areas. Households willing to accept compensation should be compensated by providing them with the opportunity to access non-market forest resources.

When implementing the compensation scheme-specific attention should be given to age, farm size, CBO membership status and the income level of households. Households engaged in

livestock farming

, receiving remittance and have their farms located closer to the forest must equally be given special attention when implementing the compensation scheme. This compensation scheme should be complemented with education and vocational training on alternative livelihood ventures. For those households not willing to accept compensation, decision-makers should identify them, train them, support and encourage them to create local

community resource management

areas (CREMA). For those forest resources identified to attract higher WTA amounts, a conservation agenda should in the short run include a strategy that incites the sustainable use of those forest resources.

Theoretically, the limitations in terms of estimations of non-market values of forest resources have been minimized with the used of

CVM

. Practically, the WTA amounts serve as a guide to designing any compensation package for forest fringe communities in Ghana. As typical of WTA estimations, the values provided might be over-estimated. Therefore, future researchers should consider using both WTA and WTP or choice experiment.

Declaration of competing interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

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1

Gh₵ 4.77 = US$1.00.


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